Jesus Christ frequently taught in parables. In addition to a positive superficial meaning, parables had an additional deeper and more profound meaning pointing to His devine mission. The parable of the Good Samaritan is no exception.
[A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho] We are all represented by the "certain man". The decent from Jerusalem to Jericho represents our premortal existence and leaving Gods presence to come to Earth. There are not very many references to the pre-existence in scripture. This is an exciting one.
[and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.] During mortality, Satan lies in wait to spiritually injure us and steal from us our divinity and righteousness.
[And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side.] Worldly religion and even The Law of Moses have no interest helping or cannot even if they wanted to.
[But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he had compassion on him,] Christ is the Good Samaritan who is looking to save us, the Poor Wayfairing Man.
[And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine,] Christ has the power to heal spiritual wounds by repentance (wine) and covenant (oil).
[and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee.] Not only will Christ return, but Christ commends us into the care of His Church (inn) and His authorized servants (host) who have been called and empowered to act for Christ.