Ps 48:12-13 "Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers thereof. Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces; that ye may tell it to the [last] generation."
The ancient temple at Jerusalem may not have stood on the Haram al-Sharif or so-called "temple mount" where the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock stand today. Some historians and archaeologist are claiming that what is known as the temple mount today is likely the ancient Roman Antonia Fortress. Instead, the ancient temple would has stood 600 ft to the south on Mount Zion in the City of David.
1. Jesus Christ prophesied that not one stone of the temple complex would be left upon another (Matt 24:1-2, Mark 13:2). The reason why every rock was up-turned on the temple complex was because when Titus burned the temple, its gold melted and flowed down in between the foundation stones. Soldiers overturned all the stones to get at the gold. Josephus commented that the destruction was so complete that no one would have guessed a temple stood in that location.
2. The Antonia Fortress would have been a massive structure housing the 10th Legion comprising 6000 soldiers and at least 4000 additional support persons including numerous horses. The Fortress would not have been a small appendage to the temple complex but would have dwarfed it.
3. According to Josephus, the Antonia Fortress was built around a massive 75 ft rock. The Romans built massive walls around the rock (Foundation Stone) and then back-filled the area creating a plateau on Mount Moriah whose southeast tower looked down on the temple complex. The higher elevation of the Antonia Fortress explains why the Roman soldiers "ran down" from the Fortress to arrest Paul just outside the temple gates for inciting a riot (Acts 21:32). The Antonia Fortress complex was connected to the temple complex by two 600-ft colonnades (arms) flush with its western wall.
4. The Bible indicates the Holy Temple stood in on Mount Zion, in the City of David (Ophel), over the Gihon Spring which flowed beneath its southeast corner (Ezek 47:1-12). Josephus said that the temple complex stood on a 600ft crescent ridge between the Kidron and Tyropoeon (Cheesemonger) Valleys.
5. The Gihon Spring is a siphon fed by an aquifer under Mount Scopus. Vertical channels from the spring would have supplied the temple with needed fresh water.
6. During the time of the Maccabees, the Temple was descrated by Greeks . Simon the Hasmonean decided to purify and remove Mt. Zion, leveling the citadel (Akra) and throwing it into the Tyropeon Valley. After Simon's leveling of the Ophel and Akra of the City of David, the hill west in what became known as Upper Jerusalem began to be called Mt. Zion.